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In This Issue of Diabetes

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05
Categories: Diabetes

Immune Recognition of {beta}-Cells: Neoepitopes as Key Players in the Loss of Tolerance

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes, there is progressive loss of immune self-tolerance, evidenced by the accumulation of islet autoantibodies and emergence of autoreactive T cells. Continued autoimmune activity leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin secretion. Studies of samples from patients with type 1 diabetes and of murine disease models have generated important insights about genetic and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility and immune pathways that are important for pathogenesis. However, important unanswered questions remain regarding the events that surround the initial loss of tolerance and subsequent failure of regulatory mechanisms to arrest autoimmunity and preserve functional β-cells. In this Perspective, we discuss various processes that lead to the generation of neoepitopes in pancreatic β-cells, their recognition by autoreactive T cells and antibodies, and potential roles for such responses in the pathology of disease. Emerging evidence supports the relevance of neoepitopes generated through processes that are mechanistically linked with β-cell stress. Together, these observations support a paradigm in which neoepitope generation leads to the activation of pathogenic immune cells that initiate a feed-forward loop that can amplify the antigenic repertoire toward pancreatic β-cell proteins.

Categories: Diabetes

Adipocyte Long-Noncoding RNA Transcriptome Analysis of Obese Mice Identified Lnc-Leptin, Which Regulates Leptin

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Obesity induces profound transcriptome changes in adipocytes, and recent evidence suggests that long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in this process. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome study by RNA sequencing in adipocytes isolated from interscapular brown, inguinal, and epididymal white adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. The analysis revealed a set of obesity-dysregulated lncRNAs, many of which exhibit dynamic changes in the fed versus fasted state, potentially serving as novel molecular markers of adipose energy status. Among the most prominent lncRNAs is Lnc-leptin, which is transcribed from an enhancer region upstream of leptin (Lep). Expression of Lnc-leptin is sensitive to insulin and closely correlates to Lep expression across diverse pathophysiological conditions. Functionally, induction of Lnc-leptin is essential for adipogenesis, and its presence is required for the maintenance of Lep expression in vitro and in vivo. Direct interaction was detected between DNA loci of Lnc-leptin and Lep in mature adipocytes, which diminished upon Lnc-leptin knockdown. Our study establishes Lnc-leptin as a new regulator of Lep.

Categories: Diabetes

Cardiac Dysfunction and Metabolic Inflexibility in a Mouse Model of Diabetes Without Dyslipidemia

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for heart disease, leading to impaired cardiac function and a metabolic switch toward fatty acid usage. In this study, we investigated if hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia in the absence of dyslipidemia is sufficient to drive these changes and if they can be reversed by restoring euglycemia. Using the βV59M mouse model, in which diabetes can be rapidly induced and reversed, we show that stroke volume and cardiac output were reduced within 2 weeks of diabetes induction. Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase was decreased, as measured in vivo by hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate MRS. Metabolomics showed accumulation of pyruvate, lactate, alanine, tricarboxyclic acid cycle metabolites, and branched-chain amino acids. Myristic and palmitoleic acid were decreased. Proteomics revealed proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism were increased, whereas those involved in glucose metabolism decreased. Western blotting showed enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression. Elevated PDK4 and UCP3 and reduced pyruvate usage were present 24 h after diabetes induction. The observed effects were independent of dyslipidemia, as mice showed no evidence of elevated serum triglycerides or lipid accumulation in peripheral organs (including the heart). The effects of diabetes were reversible, as glibenclamide therapy restored euglycemia, cardiac metabolism and function, and PDK4/UCP3 levels.

Categories: Diabetes

SDF-1 Is an Autocrine Insulin-Desensitizing Factor in Adipocytes

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Insulin desensitization occurs not only under the obese diabetic condition but also in the fasting state. However, little is known about the common secretory factor(s) that are regulated under these two insulin-desensitized conditions. Here, using database analysis and in vitro and in vivo experiments, we identified stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) as an insulin-desensitizing factor in adipocytes, overexpressed in both fasting and obese adipose tissues. Exogenously added SDF-1 induced extracellular signal–regulated kinase signal, which phosphorylated and degraded IRS-1 protein in adipocytes, decreasing insulin-mediated signaling and glucose uptake. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous SDF-1 or inhibition of its receptor in adipocytes markedly increased IRS-1 protein levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity, indicating the autocrine action of SDF-1. In agreement with these findings, adipocyte-specific ablation of SDF-1 enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissues and in the whole body. These results point to a novel regulatory mechanism of insulin sensitivity mediated by adipose autocrine SDF-1 action and provide a new insight into the process of insulin desensitization in adipocytes.

Categories: Diabetes

Sleeve Gastrectomy Improves Glycemia Independent of Weight Loss by Restoring Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Bariatric surgery dramatically improves glycemic control, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain controversial because of confounding weight loss. We performed sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on obese and diabetic leptin receptor–deficient mice (db/db). One week postsurgery, mice weighed 5% less and displayed improved glycemia compared with sham-operated controls, and islets from SG mice displayed reduced expression of diabetes markers. One month postsurgery SG mice weighed more than preoperatively but remained near-euglycemic and displayed reduced hepatic lipid droplets. Pair feeding of SG and sham db/db mice showed that surgery rather than weight loss was responsible for reduced glycemia after SG. Although insulin secretion profiles from islets of sham and SG mice were indistinguishable, clamp studies revealed that SG causes a dramatic improvement in muscle and hepatic insulin sensitivity accompanied by hepatic regulation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-α and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α targets. We conclude that long-term weight loss after SG requires leptin signaling. Nevertheless, SG elicits a remarkable improvement in glycemia through insulin sensitization independent of reduced feeding and weight loss.

Categories: Diabetes

A Pharmacogenetic Approach to the Treatment of Patients With PPARG Mutations

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Loss-of-function mutations in PPARG cause familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3) and severe metabolic disease in many patients. Missense mutations in PPARG are present in ~1 in 500 people. Although mutations are often binarily classified as benign or deleterious, prospective functional classification of all missense PPARG variants suggests that their impact is graded. Furthermore, in testing novel mutations with both prototypic endogenous (e.g., prostaglandin J2 [PGJ2]) and synthetic ligands (thiazolidinediones, tyrosine agonists), we observed that synthetic agonists selectively rescue function of some peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor- (PPAR) mutants. We report on patients with FPLD3 who harbor two such PPAR mutations (R308P and A261E). Both PPAR mutants exhibit negligible constitutive or PGJ2-induced transcriptional activity but respond readily to synthetic agonists in vitro, with structural modeling providing a basis for such differential ligand-dependent responsiveness. Concordant with this finding, dramatic clinical improvement was seen after pioglitazone treatment of a patient with R308P mutant PPAR. A patient with A261E mutant PPAR also responded beneficially to rosiglitazone, although cardiomyopathy precluded prolonged thiazolidinedione use. These observations indicate that detailed structural and functional classification can be used to inform therapeutic decisions in patients with PPARG mutations.

Categories: Diabetes

Defining the Transcriptional Targets of Leptin Reveals a Role for Atf3 in Leptin Action

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Leptin acts via its receptor (LepRb) to modulate gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb-expressing neurons, thereby controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of the control of gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb neurons for leptin action, the transcriptional targets of LepRb signaling have remained undefined because LepRb cells contribute a small fraction to the aggregate transcriptome of the brain regions in which they reside. We thus employed translating ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA sequencing to isolate and analyze mRNA from the hypothalamic LepRb neurons of wild-type or leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob) mice treated with vehicle or exogenous leptin. Although the expression of most of the genes encoding the neuropeptides commonly considered to represent the main targets of leptin action were altered only following chronic leptin deprivation, our analysis revealed other transcripts that were coordinately regulated by leptin under multiple treatment conditions. Among these, acute leptin treatment increased expression of the transcription factor Atf3 in LepRb neurons. Furthermore, ablation of Atf3 from LepRb neurons (Atf3LepRbKO mice) decreased leptin efficacy and promoted positive energy balance in mice. Thus, this analysis revealed the gene targets of leptin action, including Atf3, which represents a cellular mediator of leptin action.

Categories: Diabetes

Native Oxyntomodulin Has Significant Glucoregulatory Effects Independent of Weight Loss in Obese Humans With and Without Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Oxyntomodulin (OXM), an enteroendocrine hormone, causes appetite suppression, increased energy expenditure, and weight loss in obese humans via activation of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. However, the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis remain ill defined. To address this gap, we evaluated the effects of an i.v. infusion of native OXM on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and glycemic excursion in a graded glucose infusion (GGI) procedure in two separate randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled, single-dose crossover trials in 12 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes and in 12 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (LIRA) as a comparator in T2DM. In both groups, in the GGI, 3.0 pmol/kg/min of OXM significantly increased ISR and blunted glycemic excursion relative to PBO. In T2DM, the effects of OXM were comparable to those of LIRA, including restoration of β-cell glucose responsiveness to that of nonobese subjects without diabetes. Our findings indicate that native OXM significantly augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion acutely in obese subjects with and without diabetes, with effects comparable to pharmacologic GLP-1 receptor activation and independent of weight loss. Native OXM has potential to improve hyperglycemia via complementary and independent induction of insulin secretion and weight loss.

Categories: Diabetes

Oxidative Stress Inhibits Healthy Adipose Expansion Through Suppression of SREBF1-Mediated Lipogenic Pathway

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Recent studies have emphasized the association of adipose oxidative stress (Fat reactive oxygen species [ROS]) with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in obesity. However, the causal roles of Fat ROS in metabolic disturbances in vivo remain unclear because no mouse model has been available in which oxidative stress is manipulated by targeting adipocytes. In this research, we generated two models of Fat ROS–manipulated mice and evaluated the metabolic features in diet-induced obesity. Fat ROS–eliminated mice, in which Cat and Sod1 were overexpressed in adipocytes, exhibited adipose expansion with decreased ectopic lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity. Conversely, Fat ROS–augmented mice, in which glutathione was depleted specifically in adipocytes, exhibited restricted adipose expansion associated with increased ectopic lipid accumulation and deteriorated insulin sensitivity. In the white adipose tissues of these mice, macrophage polarization, tissue fibrosis, and de novo lipogenesis were significantly changed. In vitro approaches identified KDM1A-mediated attenuation of sterol-regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) transcriptional activities as the underlying mechanism for the suppression of de novo lipogenesis by oxidative stress. Thus, our study uncovered the novel roles of Fat ROS in healthy adipose expansion, ectopic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance, providing the possibility for the adipocyte-targeting antioxidant therapy.

Categories: Diabetes

Adrenaline Stimulates Glucagon Secretion by Tpc2-Dependent Ca2+ Mobilization From Acidic Stores in Pancreatic {alpha}-Cells

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Adrenaline is a powerful stimulus of glucagon secretion. It acts by activation of β-adrenergic receptors, but the downstream mechanisms have only been partially elucidated. Here, we have examined the effects of adrenaline in mouse and human α-cells by a combination of electrophysiology, imaging of Ca2+ and PKA activity, and hormone release measurements. We found that stimulation of glucagon secretion correlated with a PKA- and EPAC2-dependent (inhibited by PKI and ESI-05, respectively) elevation of [Ca2+]i in α-cells, which occurred without stimulation of electrical activity and persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ but was sensitive to ryanodine, bafilomycin, and thapsigargin. Adrenaline also increased [Ca2+]i in α-cells in human islets. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the Tpc2 channel (that mediates Ca2+ release from acidic intracellular stores) abolished the stimulatory effect of adrenaline on glucagon secretion and reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i. Furthermore, in Tpc2-deficient islets, ryanodine exerted no additive inhibitory effect. These data suggest that β-adrenergic stimulation of glucagon secretion is controlled by a hierarchy of [Ca2+]i signaling in the α-cell that is initiated by cAMP-induced Tpc2-dependent Ca2+ release from the acidic stores and further amplified by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum.

Categories: Diabetes

Altered Brain Dynamics in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes During Working Memory Processing

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

It is now generally accepted that diabetes increases the risk for cognitive impairment, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. A critical problem in linking diabetes to cognitive impairment is that patients often have multiple comorbidities (e.g., obesity, hypertension) that have been independently linked to cognitive deficits. In the study reported here we focused on young adults with and without type 1 diabetes who were virtually free of such comorbidities. The two groups were matched on major health and demographic factors, and all participants completed a verbal working memory task during magnetoencephalographic brain imaging. We hypothesized that patients would have altered neural dynamics in verbal working memory processing and that these differences would directly relate to clinical disease measures. Accordingly, we found that patients had significantly stronger neural responses in the superior parietal cortices during memory encoding and significantly weaker activity in parietal-occipital regions during maintenance compared with control subjects. Moreover, disease duration and glycemic control were both significantly correlated with neural responses in various brain regions. In conclusion, young healthy adults with type 1 diabetes already have aberrant neural processing relative to their peers without diabetes, using compensatory responses to perform the task, and glucose management and duration may play a central role.

Categories: Diabetes

Pericyte-Derived Dickkopf2 Regenerates Damaged Penile Neurovasculature Through an Angiopoietin-1-Tie2 Pathway

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Penile erection requires well-coordinated interactions between vascular and nervous systems. Penile neurovascular dysfunction is a major cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with diabetes, which causes poor response to oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Dickkopf2 (DKK2), a Wnt antagonist, is known to promote angiogenesis. Here, using DKK2-Tg mice or DKK2 protein administration, we demonstrate that the overexpression of DKK2 in diabetic mice enhances penile angiogenesis and neural regeneration and restores erectile function. Transcriptome analysis revealed that angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 are target genes for DKK2. Using an endothelial cell-pericyte coculture system and ex vivo neurite sprouting assay, we found that DKK2-mediated juxtacrine signaling in pericyte-endothelial cell interactions promotes angiogenesis and neural regeneration through an angiopoietin-1-Tie2 pathway, rescuing erectile function in diabetic mice. The dual angiogenic and neurotrophic effects of DKK2, especially as a therapeutic protein, will open new avenues to treating diabetic ED.

Categories: Diabetes

Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase 2 Ameliorates Diabetic Keratopathy and Impaired Wound Healing in Mouse Corneas

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

EPHX2 (encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase [sEH]) converts biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), anti-inflammatory and profibrinolytic effectors, into the less biologically active metabolites, dihydroxyeicostrienoic acids. We sought to characterize the expression and the function of EPHX2 in diabetic corneas and during wound healing. The expression of EPHX2 at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as sEH enzymatic activity, was markedly upregulated in the tissues/cells, including corneal epithelial cells as well as the retina of human type 2 and mouse type 1 (streptozotocin [STZ] induced) and/or type 2 diabetes. Ephx2 depletion had no detectable effects on STZ-induced hyperglycemia but prevented the development of tear deficiency. Ephx2–/– mice showed an acceleration of hyperglycemia-delayed epithelium wound healing. Moreover, inhibition of sEH increased the rate of epithelium wound closure and restored hyperglycemia-suppressed STAT3 activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in the diabetic corneas. Treatment of diabetic corneas with cobalt protoporphyrin, a well-known HO-1 inducer, restored wound-induced HO-1 upregulation and accelerated delayed wound healing. Finally, Ephx2 depletion enhanced sensory innervation and regeneration in diabetic corneas at 1 month after epithelial debridement. Our data suggest that increased sEH activity may be a contributing factor for diabetic corneal complications; targeting sEH pharmacologically or supplementing EETs may represent a new, adjunctive therapy for treating diabetic keratopathy.

Categories: Diabetes

Superior Glycemic Control With a Glucose-Responsive Insulin Analog: Hepatic and Nonhepatic Impacts

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3-3H]glucose began at –120 min. Basal sampling (–30 to 0 min) was followed by two study periods (150 min each), clamp period 1 (P1) and clamp period 2 (P2). At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36 ± 3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused intravenously; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2). Whole-body insulin clearance and insulin concentrations were not different in P1 versus P2 with HI, but whole-body insulin clearance was 23% higher and arterial insulin 16% lower in P1 versus P2 with GRI. Net hepatic glucose output was similar between treatments in P1. In P2, both treatments induced net hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) (HI mean ± SEM 2.1 ± 0.5 vs. 3.3 ± 0.4 GRI mg/kg/min). Nonhepatic glucose uptake in P1 and P2, respectively, differed between treatments (2.6 ± 0.3 and 7.4 ± 0.6 mg/kg/min with HI vs. 2.0 ± 0.2 and 8.1 ± 0.8 mg/kg/min with GRI). Thus, glycemia affected GRI but not HI clearance, with resultant differential effects on HGU and nonHGU. GRI holds promise for decreasing hypoglycemia risk while enhancing glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions.

Categories: Diabetes

Endogenous Glucose Production and Hormonal Changes in Response to Canagliflozin and Liraglutide Combination Therapy

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

The decrement in plasma glucose concentration with SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is blunted by a rise in endogenous glucose production (EGP). We investigated the ability of incretin treatment to offset the EGP increase. Subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 36) were randomized to 1) canagliflozin (CANA), 2) liraglutide (LIRA), or 3) CANA plus LIRA (CANA/LIRA). EGP was measured with [3-3H]glucose with or without drugs for 360 min. In the pretreatment studies, EGP was comparable and decreased (2.2 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/kg ⋅ min) during a 300- to 360-min period (P < 0.01). The decrement in EGP was attenuated with CANA (2.1 ± 0.1 to 1.9 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min) and CANA/LIRA (2.2 ± 0.1 to 2.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min), whereas with LIRA it was the same (2.4 ± 0.2 to 1.8 ± 0.2 mg/kg ⋅ min) (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline). After CANA, the fasting plasma insulin concentration decreased (18 ± 2 to 12 ± 2 μU/mL, P < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in LIRA (18 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 μU/mL) and CANA/LIRA (17 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 2 μU/mL). Mean plasma glucagon did not change during the pretreatment studies from 0 to 360 min, while it increased with CANA (69 ± 3 to 78 ± 2 pg/mL, P < 0.05), decreased with LIRA (93 ± 6 to 80 ± 6 pg/mL, P < 0.05), and did not change in CANA/LIRA. LIRA prevented the insulin decline and blocked the glucagon rise observed with CANA but did not inhibit the increase in EGP. Factors other than insulin and glucagon contribute to the stimulation of EGP after CANA-induced glucosuria.

Categories: Diabetes

Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Defense and Peroxiredoxin 6 Are Linked to Biosynthesis of Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are lipid mediators with promising antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties that are formed in white adipose tissue (WAT) via de novo lipogenesis, but their biosynthetic enzymes are unknown. Using a combination of lipidomics in WAT, quantitative trait locus mapping, and correlation analyses in rat BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, as well as response to oxidative stress in murine models, we elucidated the potential pathway of biosynthesis of several FAHFAs. Comprehensive analysis of WAT samples identified ~160 regioisomers, documenting the complexity of this lipid class. The linkage analysis highlighted several members of the nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant defense system (Prdx6, Mgst1, Mgst3), lipid-handling proteins (Cd36, Scd6, Acnat1, Acnat2, Baat), and the family of flavin containing monooxygenases (Fmo) as the positional candidate genes. Transgenic expression of Nrf2 and deletion of Prdx6 genes resulted in reduction of palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (9-PAHSA) and 11-PAHSA levels, while oxidative stress induced by an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis increased PAHSA levels nonspecifically. Our results indicate that the synthesis of FAHFAs via carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein–driven de novo lipogenesis depends on the adaptive antioxidant system and suggest that FAHFAs may link activity of this system with insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues.

Categories: Diabetes

Circulating Fetuin-A and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

Diabetes - Mon, 05/21/2018 - 13:05

Fetuin-A, a hepatic-origin protein, is strongly positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in human observational studies, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. We aimed to study the potential causal relation of circulating fetuin-A to risk of type 2 diabetes in a Mendelian randomization study with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the fetuin-A–encoding AHSG gene. We used data from eight European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study including 10,020 incident cases. Plasma fetuin-A concentration was measured in a subset of 965 subcohort participants and 654 case subjects. A genetic score of the AHSG single nucleotide polymorphisms was strongly associated with fetuin-A (28% explained variation). Using the genetic score as instrumental variable of fetuin-A, we observed no significant association of a 50 µg/mL higher fetuin-A concentration with diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.97, 1.07]). Combining our results with those from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium (12,171 case subjects) also did not suggest a clear significant relation of fetuin-A with diabetes risk. In conclusion, although there is mechanistic evidence for an effect of fetuin-A on insulin sensitivity and secretion, this study does not support a strong, relevant relationship between circulating fetuin-A and diabetes risk in the general population.

Categories: Diabetes

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