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In This Issue of Diabetes

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00
Categories: Diabetes

Strong Heart, Low Ceramides

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00
Categories: Diabetes

Islet Long Noncoding RNAs: A Playbook for Discovery and Characterization

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Diabetes is a complex group of metabolic disorders that can be accompanied by several comorbidities, including increased risk of early death. Decades of diabetes research have elucidated many genetic drivers of normal islet function and dysfunction; however, a lack of suitable treatment options suggests our knowledge about the disease remains incomplete. The establishment of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), once dismissed as "junk" DNA, as essential gene regulators in many biological processes has redefined the central role for RNA in cells. Studies showing that misregulation of lncRNAs can lead to disease have contributed to the emergence of lncRNAs as attractive candidates for drug targeting. These findings underscore the need to reexamine islet biology in the context of a regulatory role for RNA. This review will 1) highlight what is known about lncRNAs in the context of diabetes, 2) summarize the strategies used in lncRNA discovery pipelines, and 3) discuss future directions and the potential impact of studying the role of lncRNAs in diabetes.

Categories: Diabetes

Collateral Damage: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Induced With Checkpoint Inhibitors

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Insulin-dependent diabetes may occur in patients with cancers who are treated with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). We reviewed cases occurring over a 6-year period at two academic institutions and identified 27 patients in whom this developed, or an incidence of 0.9%. The patients had a variety of solid-organ cancers, but all had received either anti–PD-1 or anti–PD-L1 antibodies. Diabetes presented with ketoacidosis in 59%, and 42% had evidence of pancreatitis in the peridiagnosis period. Forty percent had at least one positive autoantibody and 21% had two or more. There was a predominance of HLA-DR4, which was present in 76% of patients. Other immune adverse events were seen in 70%, and endocrine adverse events in 44%. We conclude that autoimmune, insulin-dependent diabetes occurs in close to 1% of patients treated with anti–PD-1 or –PD-L1 CPIs. This syndrome has similarities and differences compared with classic type 1 diabetes. The dominance of HLA-DR4 suggests an opportunity to identify those at highest risk of these complications and to discover insights into the mechanisms of this adverse event.

Categories: Diabetes

Altered Function of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Type 1 Diabetes: A Challenge for Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy?

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) arises from a failure to maintain tolerance to specific β-cell antigens. Antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) aims to reestablish immune tolerance through the supply of pertinent antigens to specific cell types or environments that are suitable for eliciting tolerogenic responses. However, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in T1D patients and in animal models of T1D are affected by a number of alterations, some due to genetic polymorphism. Combination of these alterations, impacting the number, phenotype, and function of APC subsets, may account for both the underlying tolerance deficiency and for the limited efficacy of ASITs so far. In this comprehensive review, we examine different aspects of APC function that are pertinent to tolerance induction and summarize how they are altered in the context of T1D. We attempt to reconcile 25 years of studies on this topic, highlighting genetic, phenotypic, and functional features that are common or distinct between humans and animal models. Finally, we discuss the implications of these defects and the challenges they might pose for the use of ASITs to treat T1D. Better understanding of these APC alterations will help us design more efficient ways to induce tolerance.

Categories: Diabetes

Variability of Directly Measured First-Pass Hepatic Insulin Extraction and Its Association With Insulin Sensitivity and Plasma Insulin

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Although the β-cells secrete insulin, the liver, with its first-pass insulin extraction (FPE), regulates the amount of insulin allowed into circulation for action on target tissues. The metabolic clearance rate of insulin, of which FPE is the dominant component, is a major determinant of insulin sensitivity (SI). We studied the intricate relationship among FPE, SI, and fasting insulin. We used a direct method of measuring FPE, the paired portal/peripheral infusion protocol, where insulin is infused stepwise through either the portal vein or a peripheral vein in healthy young dogs (n = 12). FPE is calculated as the difference in clearance rates (slope of infusion rate vs. steady insulin plot) between the paired experiments. Significant correlations were found between FPE and clamp-assessed SI (rs = 0.74), FPE and fasting insulin (rs = –0.64), and SI and fasting insulin (rs = –0.67). We also found a wide variance in FPE (22.4–77.2%; mean ± SD 50.4 ± 19.1) that is reflected in the variability of plasma insulin (48.1 ± 30.9 pmol/L) and SI (9.4 ± 5.8 x 104 dL · kg–1 · min–1 · [pmol/L]–1). FPE could be the nexus of regulation of both plasma insulin and SI.

Categories: Diabetes

Enhanced Glucose Control Following Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy Does Not Require a {beta}-Cell Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Bariatric surgeries, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), resolve diabetes in 40–50% of patients. Studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have centered on the role of the insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in great part because of the ~10-fold rise in its circulating levels after surgery. However, there is currently debate over the role of direct β-cell signaling by GLP-1 to mediate improved glucose tolerance following surgery. In order to assess the importance of β-cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) for improving glucose control after VSG, a mouse model of this procedure was developed and combined with a genetically modified mouse line allowing an inducible, β-cell–specific Glp1r knockdown (Glp1rβ-cell-ko). Mice with VSG lost ~20% of body weight over 30 days compared with sham-operated controls and had a ~60% improvement in glucose tolerance. Isolated islets from VSG mice had significantly greater insulin responses to glucose than controls. Glp1r knockdown in β-cells caused glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice compared with obese controls, but VSG improved glycemic profiles to similar levels during oral and intraperitoneal glucose challenges in Glp1rβ-cell-ko and Glp1rWT mice. Therefore, even though the β-cell GLP-1R seems to be important for maintaining glucose tolerance in obese mice, in these experiments it is dispensable for the improvement in glucose tolerance after VSG. Moreover, the metabolic physiology activated by VSG can overcome the deficits in glucose regulation caused by lack of β-cell GLP-1 signaling in obesity.

Categories: Diabetes

The Transplantation of {omega}3 PUFA-Altered Gut Microbiota of fat-1 Mice to Wild-Type Littermates Prevents Obesity and Associated Metabolic Disorders

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Altering the gut microbiome may be beneficial to the host and recently arose as a promising strategy to manage obesity. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)–mediated alterations in the microbiota to metabolic parameter changes in mice. Four groups were compared: male fat-1 transgenic mice (with constitutive production of 3 PUFAs) and male wild-type (WT) littermates fed an obesogenic (high fat/high sucrose [HFHS]) or a control diet. Unlike WT mice, HFHS-fed fat-1 mice were protected against obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. Unlike WT mice, fat-1 mice maintained a normal barrier function, resulting in a significantly lower metabolic endotoxemia. The fat-1 mice displayed greater phylogenic diversity in the cecum, and fecal microbiota transplantation from fat-1 to WT mice was able to reverse weight gain and to normalize glucose tolerance and intestinal permeability. We concluded that the 3 PUFA–mediated alteration of gut microbiota contributed to the prevention of metabolic syndrome in fat-1 mice. It occurred independently of changes in the PUFA content of host tissues and may represent a promising strategy to prevent metabolic disease and preserve a lean phenotype.

Categories: Diabetes

Membrane-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling Mediates Metabolic Homeostasis via Central Activation of Protein Phosphatase 2A

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Women gain weight and their diabetes risk increases as they transition through menopause; these changes can be partly reversed by hormone therapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are unknown. A novel knock-in mouse line with the selective blockade of the membrane-initiated estrogen receptor (ER) pathway was used, and we found that the lack of this pathway precipitated excessive weight gain and glucose intolerance independent of food intake and that this was accompanied by impaired adaptive thermogenesis and reduced physical activity. Notably, the central activation of protein phosphatase (PP) 2A improved metabolic disorders induced by the lack of membrane-initiated ER signaling. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of estrogen replacement in a murine menopause model was abolished by central PP2A inactivation. These findings define a critical role for membrane-initiated ER signaling in metabolic homeostasis via the central action of PP2A.

Categories: Diabetes

Liraglutide Modulates Appetite and Body Weight Through Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-Expressing Glutamatergic Neurons

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) affect appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. We determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the short- and long-term effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight, and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT-expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2-expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding. Concomitantly, deletion of GLP-1Rs from glutamatergic neurons completely abolished the neural network activation observed after liraglutide administration. We conclude that liraglutide activates a dispersed but discrete neural network to mediate its physiological effects and that these effects require GLP-1R expression on glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons.

Categories: Diabetes

Perivascular Adipose Tissue-Derived PDGF-D Contributes to Aortic Aneurysm Formation During Obesity

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Obesity increases the risk of vascular diseases, including aortic aneurysm (AA). Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding arteries are altered during obesity. However, the underlying mechanism of adipose tissue, especially PVAT, in the pathogenesis of AA is still unclear. Here we showed that angiotensin II (AngII) infusion increases the incidence of AA in leptin-deficient obese mice (ob/ob) and high-fat diet–induced obese mice with adventitial inflammation. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was highly expressed in the PVAT of ob/ob mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that PDGF-D mediates adventitial inflammation, which provides a direct link between PVAT dysfunction and AA formation in AngII-infused obese mice. We found that PDGF-D promotes the proliferation, migration, and inflammatory factors expression in cultured adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, the inhibition of PDGF-D function significantly reduced the incidence of AA in AngII-infused obese mice. More importantly, adipocyte-specific PDGF-D transgenic mice are more susceptible to AA formation after AngII infusion accompanied by exaggerated adventitial inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Collectively, our findings reveal a notable role of PDGF-D in the AA formation during obesity, and modulation of this cytokine might be an exploitable treatment strategy for the condition.

Categories: Diabetes

Activation of Nrf2 Is Required for Normal and ChREBP{alpha}-Augmented Glucose-Stimulated {beta}-Cell Proliferation

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Patients with both major forms of diabetes would benefit from therapies that increase β-cell mass. Glucose, a natural mitogen, drives adaptive expansion of β-cell mass by promoting β-cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that a carbohydrate response element–binding protein (ChREBPα) is required for glucose-stimulated β-cell proliferation and that overexpression of ChREBPα amplifies the proliferative effect of glucose. Here we found that ChREBPα reprogrammed anabolic metabolism to promote proliferation. ChREBPα increased mitochondrial biogenesis, oxygen consumption rates, and ATP production. Proliferation augmentation by ChREBPα required the presence of ChREBPβ. ChREBPα increased the expression and activity of Nrf2, initiating antioxidant and mitochondrial biogenic programs. The induction of Nrf2 was required for ChREBPα-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis and for glucose-stimulated and ChREBPα-augmented β-cell proliferation. Overexpression of Nrf2 was sufficient to drive human β-cell proliferation in vitro; this confirms the importance of this pathway. Our results reveal a novel pathway necessary for β-cell proliferation that may be exploited for therapeutic β-cell regeneration.

Categories: Diabetes

Interleukin-6 Reduces {beta}-Cell Oxidative Stress by Linking Autophagy With the Antioxidant Response

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response and thereby reduces ROS in β-cells and human islets. β-Cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death through the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan. IL-6-driven ROS reduction is associated with an increase in the master antioxidant factor NRF2, which rapidly translocates to the mitochondria to decrease mitochondrial activity and stimulate mitophagy. IL-6 also initiates a robust transient decrease in cellular cAMP levels, likely contributing to the stimulation of mitophagy to mitigate ROS. Our findings suggest that coupling autophagy to antioxidant response in β-cells leads to stress adaptation that can reduce cellular apoptosis. These findings have implications for β-cell survival under diabetogenic conditions and present novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

Categories: Diabetes

TACI-Deficient Macrophages Protect Mice Against Metaflammation and Obesity-Induced Dysregulation of Glucose Homeostasis

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) is a receptor for the TNF superfamily cytokines, B cell–activating factor (BAFF), and A proliferation–inducing ligand (APRIL). Here, we demonstrate that TACI-deficient mice subjected to high-fat diet (HFD) are protected from weight gain and dysregulated glucose homeostasis. Resistance to HFD-induced metabolic changes in TACI-deficient mice does not involve TACI-mediated adipogenesis. Instead, accumulation of M2 macrophages (Ms), eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is implicated in the protection from obesity-induced assaults. In support of this hypothesis, adoptively transferred TACI-deficient peritoneal or adipose tissue Ms, but not B cells, can improve glucose metabolism in the obese host. Interestingly, the transferred TACI-deficient Ms not only home to host VAT but also trigger the accumulation of host M2 Ms and eosinophils in VAT. The increase in host M2 Ms in VAT is likely a result of eosinophil recruitment in response to eotaxin-2 produced by TACI-deficient Ms. Insulin signaling experiments revealed that IL-10 secreted by TACI-deficient Ms is responsible for maintaining adipocyte insulin sensitivity. Thus, the adoptive transfer experiments offer a model where TACI-deficient Ms accumulate in VAT and protect against metaflammation and obesity-associated dysregulation of glucose metabolism.

Categories: Diabetes

Production of Elastin-Derived Peptides Contributes to the Development of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Affecting more than 30% of the Western population, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and can lead to multiple complications, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cancer, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Insulin resistance and obesity are described as potential causes of NAFLD. However, we surmised that factors such as extracellular matrix remodeling of large blood vessels, skin, or lungs may also participate in the progression of liver diseases. We studied the effects of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), biomarkers of aging, on NAFLD progression. We evaluated the consequences of EDP accumulation in mice and of elastin receptor complex (ERC) activation on lipid storage in hepatocytes, inflammation, and fibrosis development. The accumulation of EDPs induces hepatic lipogenesis (i.e., SREBP1c and ACC), inflammation (i.e., Kupffer cells, IL-1β, and TGF-β), and fibrosis (collagen and elastin expression). These effects are induced by inhibition of the LKB1-AMPK pathway by ERC activation. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of EDPs demonstrate that this EDP-driven lipogenesis and fibrosis relies on engagement of the ERC. Our data reveal a major role of EDPs in the development of NASH, and they provide new clues for understanding the relationship between NAFLD and vascular aging.

Categories: Diabetes

Vascular and Neural Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Rats: Improvement by Sacubitril/Valsartan Greater Than Valsartan Alone

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Previously, we had shown that a vasopeptidase inhibitor drug containing ACE and neprilysin inhibitors was an effective treatment for diabetic vascular and neural complications. However, side effects prevented further development. This led to the development of sacubitril/valsartan, a drug containing angiotensin II receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor that we hypothesized would be an effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Using early and late intervention protocols (4 and 12 weeks posthyperglycemia, respectively), type 2 diabetic rats were treated with valsartan or sacubitril/valsartan for 12 weeks followed by an extensive evaluation of vascular and neural end points. The results demonstrated efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in improving vascular and neural function was superior to valsartan alone. In the early intervention protocol, sacubitril/valsartan treatment was found to slow progression of these deficits and, with late intervention treatment, was found to stimulate restoration of vascular reactivity, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and sensitivity/regeneration of sensory nerves of the skin and cornea in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. These preclinical studies suggest that sacubitril/valsartan may be an effective treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, but additional studies will be needed to investigate these effects further.

Categories: Diabetes

MicroRNA-129 and -335 Promote Diabetic Wound Healing by Inhibiting Sp1-Mediated MMP-9 Expression

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Diabetic wounds are recalcitrant to healing. However, the mechanism causing this dysfunction is not fully understood. High expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is indicative of poor wound healing. In this study, we show that specificity protein-1 (Sp1), a regulator of MMP-9, binds directly to its promoter and enhances its expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that Sp1 is the direct target of two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-129 and -335, which are significantly downregulated in diabetic skin tissues. In vitro experiments confirmed that miR-129 or -335 overexpression inhibits MMP-9 promoter activity and protein expression by targeting Sp1, whereas the inhibition of these miRNAs has the opposite effect. The beneficial role of miR-129 or miR-335 in diabetic wound healing was confirmed by the topical administration of miRNA agomirs in diabetic animals. This treatment downregulated Sp1-mediated MMP-9 expression, increased keratinocyte migration, and recovered skin thickness and collagen content. The combined treatment with miR-129 and miR-335 induced a synergistic effect on Sp1 repression and MMP-9 downregulation both in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates the regulatory mechanism of Sp1-mediated MMP-9 expression in diabetic wound healing and highlights the potential therapeutic benefits of miR-129 and -335 in delayed wound healing in diabetes.

Categories: Diabetes

Plasma Exosomes Contribute to Microvascular Damage in Diabetic Retinopathy by Activating the Classical Complement Pathway

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a player in the development of vascular damage and progression of DR. However, the role and activation of the complement system in DR are not well understood. Exosomes, small vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular environment, have a cargo of complement proteins in plasma, suggesting that they can participate in causing the vascular damage associated with DR. We demonstrate that IgG-laden exosomes in plasma activate the classical complement pathway and that the quantity of these exosomes is increased in diabetes. Moreover, we show that a lack of IgG in exosomes in diabetic mice results in a reduction in retinal vascular damage. The results of this study demonstrate that complement activation by IgG-laden plasma exosomes could contribute to the development of DR.

Categories: Diabetes

Impaired Nociception in the Diabetic Ins2+/Akita Mouse

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

The mechanisms responsible for painful and insensate diabetic neuropathy are not completely understood. Here, we have investigated sensory neuropathy in the Ins2+/Akita mouse, a hereditary model of diabetes. Akita mice become diabetic soon after weaning, and we show that this is accompanied by an impaired mechanical and thermal nociception and a significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. Electrophysiological investigations of skin-nerve preparations identified a reduced rate of action potential discharge in Ins2+/Akita mechanonociceptors compared with wild-type littermates, whereas the function of low-threshold A-fibers was essentially intact. Studies of isolated sensory neurons demonstrated a markedly reduced heat responsiveness in Ins2+/Akita dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but a mostly unchanged function of cold-sensitive neurons. Restoration of normal glucose control by islet transplantation produced a rapid recovery of nociception, which occurred before normoglycemia had been achieved. Islet transplantation also restored Ins2+/Akita intraepidermal nerve fiber density to the same level as wild-type mice, indicating that restored insulin production can reverse both sensory and anatomical abnormalities of diabetic neuropathy in mice. The reduced rate of action potential discharge in nociceptive fibers and the impaired heat responsiveness of Ins2+/Akita DRG neurons suggest that ionic sensory transduction and transmission mechanisms are modified by diabetes.

Categories: Diabetes

Circulating Sphingolipids, Insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B: The Strong Heart Family Study

Diabetes - Fri, 07/20/2018 - 13:00

Experimental studies suggest ceramides may play a role in insulin resistance. However, the relationships of circulating ceramides and related sphingolipids with plasma insulin have been underexplored in humans. We measured 15 ceramide and sphingomyelin species in fasting baseline samples from the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS), a prospective cohort of American Indians. We examined sphingolipid associations with both baseline and follow-up measures of plasma insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA-B) after adjustment for risk factors. Among the 2,086 participants without diabetes, higher levels of plasma ceramides carrying the fatty acids 16:0 (16 carbons, 0 double bond), 18:0, 20:0, or 22:0 were associated with higher plasma insulin and higher HOMA-IR at baseline and at follow-up an average of 5.4 years later. For example, a twofold higher baseline concentration of ceramide 16:0 was associated with 14% higher baseline insulin (P < 0.0001). Associations between sphingomyelin species carrying 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, or 24:0 and insulin were modified by BMI (P < 0.003): higher levels were associated with lower fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B among those with normal BMI. Our study suggests lowering circulating ceramides might be a target in prediabetes and targeting circulating sphingomyelins should take into account BMI.

Categories: Diabetes

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