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Tbx15 Defines a Glycolytic Subpopulation and White Adipocyte Heterogeneity

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Tbx15 is a member of the T-box gene family of mesodermal developmental genes. We have recently shown that Tbx15 plays a critical role in the formation and metabolic programming of glycolytic myofibers in skeletal muscle. Tbx15 is also differentially expressed among white adipose tissue (WAT) in different body depots. In the current study, using three independent methods, we show that even within a single WAT depot, high Tbx15 expression is restricted to a subset of preadipocytes and mature white adipocytes. Gene expression and metabolic profiling demonstrate that the Tbx15Hi preadipocyte and adipocyte subpopulations of cells are highly glycolytic, whereas Tbx15Low preadipocytes and adipocytes in the same depot are more oxidative and less glycolytic. Likewise, in humans, expression of TBX15 in subcutaneous and visceral WAT is positively correlated with markers of glycolytic metabolism and inversely correlated with obesity. Furthermore, overexpression of Tbx15 is sufficient to reduce oxidative and increase glycolytic metabolism in cultured adipocytes. Thus, Tbx15 differentially regulates oxidative and glycolytic metabolism within subpopulations of white adipocytes and preadipocytes. This leads to a functional heterogeneity of cellular metabolism within WAT that has potential impact in the understanding of human metabolic diseases.

Categories: Diabetes

Defining a Novel Role for the Pdx1 Transcription Factor in Islet {beta}-Cell Maturation and Proliferation During Weaning

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

The transcription factor encoded by the Pdx1 gene is a critical transcriptional regulator, as it has fundamental actions in the formation of all pancreatic cell types, islet β-cell development, and adult islet β-cell function. Transgenic- and cell line–based experiments have identified 5'-flanking conserved sequences that control pancreatic and β-cell type–specific transcription, which are found within areas I (bp –2694 to –2561), II (bp –2139 to –1958), III (bp –1879 to –1799), and IV (bp –6200 to –5670). Because of the presence in area IV of binding sites for transcription factors associated with pancreas development and islet cell function, we analyzed how an endogenous deletion mutant affected Pdx1 expression embryonically and postnatally. The most striking result was observed in male Pdx1IV mutant mice after 3 weeks of birth (i.e., the onset of weaning), with only a small effect on pancreas organogenesis and no deficiencies in their female counterparts. Compromised Pdx1 mRNA and protein levels in weaned male mutant β-cells were tightly linked with hyperglycemia, decreased β-cell proliferation, reduced β-cell area, and altered expression of Pdx1-bound genes that are important in β-cell replication, endoplasmic reticulum function, and mitochondrial activity. We discuss the impact of these novel findings to Pdx1 gene regulation and islet β-cell maturation postnatally.

Categories: Diabetes

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Affects Stimulus-Secretion Coupling of Pancreatic {beta}-Cells

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) influences glucose homeostasis and possibly acts as a link between the cardiovascular system and metabolism, especially in metabolic disorders like diabetes. The current study evaluated effects of ANP on β-cell function by the use of a β-cell–specific knockout of the ANP receptor with guanylate cyclase activity (βGC-A-KO). ANP augmented insulin secretion at the threshold glucose concentration of 6 mmol/L and decreased KATP single-channel activity in β-cells of control mice but not of βGC-A-KO mice. In wild-type β-cells but not β-cells lacking functional KATP channels (SUR1-KO), ANP increased electrical activity, suggesting no involvement of other ion channels. At 6 mmol/L glucose, ANP readily elicited Ca2+ influx in control β-cells. This effect was blunted in β-cells of βGC-A-KO mice, and the maximal cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was lower. Experiments with inhibitors of protein kinase G (PKG), protein kinase A (PKA), phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), and a membrane-permeable cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) analog on KATP channel activity and insulin secretion point to participation of the cGMP/PKG and cAMP/PKA/Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) directly activated by cAMP Epac pathways in the effects of ANP on β-cell function; the latter seems to prevail. Moreover, ANP potentiated the effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on glucose-induced insulin secretion, which could be caused by a cGMP-mediated inhibition of PDE3B, which in turn reduces cAMP degradation.

Categories: Diabetes

The Myokine Irisin Is Released in Response to Saturated Fatty Acids and Promotes Pancreatic {beta}-Cell Survival and Insulin Secretion

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

This study explored the role of irisin as a new pancreatic β-cell secretagogue and survival factor and its potential role in the communication between skeletal muscle and pancreatic β-cells under lipotoxic conditions. Recombinant irisin stimulated insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a PKA-dependent manner and prevented saturated fatty acid–induced apoptosis in human and rat pancreatic β-cells, as well as in human and murine pancreatic islets, via AKT/BCL2 signaling. Treatment of myotubes with 0.5 mmol/L palmitate for 4 h, but not with oleate, promoted an increase in irisin release in the culture medium. Moreover, increased serum levels of irisin were observed in mice fed with a high-fat diet. Mouse serum rich in irisin and the conditioned medium from myotubes exposed to palmitate for 4 h significantly reduced apoptosis of murine pancreatic islets and insulin-secreting INS-1E cells, respectively, and this was abrogated in the presence of an irisin-neutralizing antibody. Finally, in vivo administration of irisin improved GSIS and increased β-cell proliferation. In conclusion, irisin can promote β-cell survival and enhance GSIS and may thus participate in the communication between skeletal muscle and β-cells under conditions of excess saturated fatty acids.

Categories: Diabetes

Pancreatic {beta}-Cell-Derived IP-10/CXCL10 Isletokine Mediates Early Loss of Graft Function in Islet Cell Transplantation

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Pancreatic islets produce and secrete cytokines and chemokines in response to inflammatory and metabolic stress. The physiological role of these "isletokines" in health and disease is largely unknown. We observed that islets release multiple inflammatory mediators in patients undergoing islet transplants within hours of infusion. The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-–induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) was among the highest released, and high levels correlated with poor islet transplant outcomes. Transgenic mouse studies confirmed that donor islet–specific expression of IP-10 contributed to islet inflammation and loss of β-cell function in islet grafts. The effects of islet-derived IP-10 could be blocked by treatment of donor islets and recipient mice with anti–IP-10 neutralizing monoclonal antibody. In vitro studies showed induction of the IP-10 gene was mediated by calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in pancreatic β-cells in response to oxidative or inflammatory stress. Sustained association of NFAT and p300 histone acetyltransferase with the IP-10 gene required p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, which differentially regulated IP-10 expression and subsequent protein release. Overall, these findings elucidate an NFAT-MAPK signaling paradigm for induction of isletokine expression in β-cells and reveal IP-10 as a primary therapeutic target to prevent β-cell–induced inflammatory loss of graft function after islet cell transplantation.

Categories: Diabetes

Long-term Hyperglycemia Naturally Induces Dental Caries but Not Periodontal Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Rodents

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Periodontal disease (PD) in patients with diabetes is described as the sixth complication of diabetes. We have previously shown that diabetes increases dental caries, and carious inflammation might have a strong effect on the adjacent periodontal tissue in diabetic rodent models. However, the possibility that hyperglycemia may induce PD in diabetic animals could not be completely eliminated. The goal of this study was to confirm the presence of PD in diabetic animal models by preventing carious inflammation with fluoride administration. F344 rats injected with alloxan (type 1 diabetic model) and db/db mice (type 2 diabetic model) were given either tap water alone or tap water containing fluoride. A cariostatic effect of fluoride was evident in the diabetic animals. Meanwhile, fluoride treatment drastically attenuated periodontal inflammation in addition to preventing dental caries. Furthermore, with fluoride treatment, periodontitis was notably nonexistent in the periodontal tissue surrounding the normal molars, whereas the caries-forming process was clearly observed in the teeth that were enveloped with persistent periodontitis, suggesting that enhanced periodontal inflammation might have been derived from the dental caries in the diabetic rodents rather than from the PD. In conclusion, long-term hyperglycemia naturally induces dental caries but not PD in type 1 and type 2 diabetic rodents.

Categories: Diabetes

Inhibition of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Protects Against {beta}-Cell Oxidative Stress and Glycemic Deterioration in Mouse Models of Type 1 Diabetes

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Islet β-cell dysfunction and aggressive macrophage activity are early features in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is induced in β-cells and macrophages during T1D and produces proinflammatory lipids and lipid peroxides that exacerbate β-cell dysfunction and macrophage activity. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent glycemic deterioration in T1D. Two inhibitors recently identified by our groups through screening efforts, ML127 and ML351, have been shown to selectively target 12/15-LOX with high potency. Only ML351 exhibited no apparent toxicity across a range of concentrations in mouse islets, and molecular modeling has suggested reduced promiscuity of ML351 compared with ML127. In mouse islets, incubation with ML351 improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and triggered gene expression pathways responsive to oxidative stress and cell death. Consistent with a role for 12/15-LOX in promoting oxidative stress, its chemical inhibition reduced production of reactive oxygen species in both mouse and human islets in vitro. In a streptozotocin-induced model of T1D in mice, ML351 prevented the development of diabetes, with coincident enhancement of nuclear Nrf2 in islet cells, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and preservation of β-cell mass. In the nonobese diabetic mouse model of T1D, administration of ML351 during the prediabetic phase prevented dysglycemia, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and increased the proportion of anti-inflammatory macrophages in insulitis. The data provide the first evidence to date that small molecules that target 12/15-LOX can prevent progression of β-cell dysfunction and glycemic deterioration in models of T1D.

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An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P < 5 x 10–8), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action–associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.

Categories: Diabetes

A Loss-of-Function Splice Acceptor Variant in IGF2 Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects more than 415 million people worldwide, and its costs to the health care system continue to rise. To identify common or rare genetic variation with potential therapeutic implications for T2D, we analyzed and replicated genome-wide protein coding variation in a total of 8,227 individuals with T2D and 12,966 individuals without T2D of Latino descent. We identified a novel genetic variant in the IGF2 gene associated with ~20% reduced risk for T2D. This variant, which has an allele frequency of 17% in the Mexican population but is rare in Europe, prevents splicing between IGF2 exons 1 and 2. We show in vitro and in human liver and adipose tissue that the variant is associated with a specific, allele-dosage–dependent reduction in the expression of IGF2 isoform 2. In individuals who do not carry the protective allele, expression of IGF2 isoform 2 in adipose is positively correlated with both incidence of T2D and increased plasma glycated hemoglobin in individuals without T2D, providing support that the protective effects are mediated by reductions in IGF2 isoform 2. Broad phenotypic examination of carriers of the protective variant revealed no association with other disease states or impaired reproductive health. These findings suggest that reducing IGF2 isoform 2 expression in relevant tissues has potential as a new therapeutic strategy for T2D, even beyond the Latin American population, with no major adverse effects on health or reproduction.

Categories: Diabetes

A Mendelian Randomization Study of Metabolite Profiles, Fasting Glucose, and Type 2 Diabetes

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Mendelian randomization (MR) provides us the opportunity to investigate the causal paths of metabolites in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis. We developed and tested an MR approach based on genetic risk scoring for plasma metabolite levels, utilizing a pathway-based sensitivity analysis to control for nonspecific effects. We focused on 124 circulating metabolites that correlate with fasting glucose in the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study (n = 2,564) and tested the possible causal effect of each metabolite with glucose and type 2 diabetes and vice versa. We detected 14 paths with potential causal effects by MR, following pathway-based sensitivity analysis. Our results suggest that elevated plasma triglycerides might be partially responsible for increased glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk, which is consistent with previous reports. Additionally, elevated HDL components, i.e., small HDL triglycerides, might have a causal role of elevating glucose levels. In contrast, large (L) and extra large (XL) HDL lipid components, i.e., XL-HDL cholesterol, XL-HDL–free cholesterol, XL-HDL phospholipids, L-HDL cholesterol, and L-HDL–free cholesterol, as well as HDL cholesterol seem to be protective against increasing fasting glucose but not against type 2 diabetes. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes associates with increased levels of alanine and decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C42:5 and phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C44:4. Our MR results provide novel insight into promising causal paths to and from glucose and type 2 diabetes and underline the value of additional information from high-resolution metabolomics over classic biochemistry.

Categories: Diabetes

Haptoglobin 1-1 Genotype Modulates the Association of Glycemic Control With Hippocampal Volume in Elderly Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00

Recent evidence suggests that glycemic control is associated with cognitive function in older patients with type 2 diabetes who are carriers of the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype compared with noncarriers. We assessed whether poor glycemic control in Hp 1-1 carriers is more strongly associated with smaller hippocampal volume than in noncarriers. Hippocampal volume was generated from high-resolution structural T1 MRI obtained for 224 participants (28 Hp 1-1 carriers [12.5%] and 196 noncarriers [87.5%]) from the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study, who had a mean (SD) number of years in the Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) registry of 8.35 (2.63) and a mean (SD) HbA1c level of 6.66 (0.73)% [49 mmol/mol]. A stronger negative association between right hippocampal volume and HbA1c was found in patients with the Hp 1-1 genotype, with a 0.032-mL decrease in right hippocampal volume per 14% increase in HbA1c (P = 0.0007) versus a 0.009-mL decrease in Hp 1-1 noncarriers (P = 0.047), after adjusting for total intracranial volume, age, sex, follow-up years in the registry, and cardiovascular factor (interaction, P = 0.025). This indicates that 29.66% of the total variance in right hippocampal volume is explained by HbA1c levels among Hp 1-1 carriers and that 3.22% is explained by HbA1c levels among Hp 1-1 noncarriers. Our results suggest that the hippocampus of Hp 1-1 carriers may be more vulnerable to the insults of poor glycemic control.

Categories: Diabetes

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Mon, 10/23/2017 - 13:00
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