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Protein Kinase G Activation Reverses Oxidative Stress and Restores Osteoblast Function and Bone Formation in Male Mice With Type 1 Diabetes

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Bone loss and fractures are underrecognized complications of type 1 diabetes and are primarily due to impaired bone formation by osteoblasts. The mechanisms leading to osteoblast dysfunction in diabetes are incompletely understood, but insulin deficiency, poor glycemic control, and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress likely contribute. Here we show that insulin promotes osteoblast proliferation and survival via the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) signal transduction pathway and that PKG stimulation of Akt provides a positive feedback loop. In osteoblasts exposed to high glucose, NO/cGMP/PKG signaling was reduced due in part to the addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to NO synthase-3, oxidative inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity, and suppression of PKG transcription. Cinaciguat—an NO-independent activator of oxidized guanylate cyclase—increased cGMP synthesis under diabetic conditions and restored proliferation, differentiation, and survival of osteoblasts. Cinaciguat increased trabecular and cortical bone in mice with type 1 diabetes by improving bone formation and osteocyte survival. In bones from diabetic mice and in osteoblasts exposed to high glucose, cinaciguat reduced oxidative stress via PKG-dependent induction of antioxidant genes and downregulation of excess NADPH oxidase-4–dependent H2O2 production. These results suggest that cGMP-elevating agents could be used as an adjunct treatment for diabetes-associated osteoporosis.

Categories: Diabetes

Skeletal Muscle-Specific Deletion of MKP-1 Reveals a p38 MAPK/JNK/Akt Signaling Node That Regulates Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Stress responses promote obesity and insulin resistance, in part, by activating the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Stress also induces expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which inactivates both JNK and p38 MAPK. However, the equilibrium between JNK/p38 MAPK and MKP-1 signaling in the development of obesity and insulin resistance is unclear. Skeletal muscle is a major tissue involved in energy expenditure and glucose metabolism. In skeletal muscle, MKP-1 is upregulated in high-fat diet–fed mice and in skeletal muscle of obese humans. Mice lacking skeletal muscle expression of MKP-1 (MKP1-MKO) showed increased skeletal muscle p38 MAPK and JNK activities and were resistant to the development of diet-induced obesity. MKP1-MKO mice exhibited increased whole-body energy expenditure that was associated with elevated levels of myofiber-associated mitochondrial oxygen consumption. miR-21, a negative regulator of PTEN expression, was upregulated in skeletal muscle of MKP1-MKO mice, resulting in increased Akt activity consistent with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that skeletal muscle MKP-1 represents a critical signaling node through which inactivation of the p38 MAPK/JNK module promotes obesity and insulin resistance.

Categories: Diabetes

Disruption of Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane (MAM) Integrity Contributes to Muscle Insulin Resistance in Mice and Humans

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Modifications of the interactions between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, defined as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), were recently shown to be involved in the control of hepatic insulin action and glucose homeostasis, but with conflicting results. Whereas skeletal muscle is the primary site of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and the main target for alterations in insulin-resistant states, the relevance of MAM integrity in muscle insulin resistance is unknown. Deciphering the importance of MAMs on muscle insulin signaling could help to clarify this controversy. Here, we show in skeletal muscle of different mice models of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) a marked disruption of ER-mitochondria interactions as an early event preceding mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Furthermore, in human myotubes, palmitate-induced insulin resistance is associated with a reduction of structural and functional ER-mitochondria interactions. Importantly, experimental increase of ER-mitochondria contacts in human myotubes prevents palmitate-induced alterations of insulin signaling and action, whereas disruption of MAM integrity alters the action of the hormone. Lastly, we found an association between altered insulin signaling and ER-mitochondria interactions in human myotubes from obese subjects with or without T2D compared with healthy lean subjects. Collectively, our data reveal a new role of MAM integrity in insulin action of skeletal muscle and highlight MAM disruption as an essential subcellular alteration associated with muscle insulin resistance in mice and humans. Therefore, reduced ER-mitochondria coupling could be a common alteration of several insulin-sensitive tissues playing a key role in altered glucose homeostasis in the context of obesity and T2D.

Categories: Diabetes

Low Neonatal Plasma n-6/n-3 PUFA Ratios Regulate Offspring Adipogenic Potential and Condition Adult Obesity Resistance

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Adipose tissue expansion progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of omega-6 (n-6) relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wild-type offspring under standard maternal dietary fat amounts to test the effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential. Relative to wild-type pups receiving high perinatal n-6/n-3 ratios, subcutaneous adipose tissue in 14-day-old wild-type pups receiving low n-6/n-3 ratios had more adipocytes that were smaller in size; decreased Ppar2, Fabp4, and Plin1; several lipid metabolism mRNAs; coincident hypermethylation of the PPAR2 proximal promoter; and elevated circulating adiponectin. As adults, offspring that received low perinatal n-6/n-3 ratios were diet-induced obesity (DIO) resistant and had a lower positive energy balance and energy intake, greater lipid fuel preference and non–resting energy expenditure, one-half the body fat, and better glucose clearance. Together, the findings support a model in which low early-life n-6/n-3 ratios remodel adipose morphology to increase circulating adiponectin, resulting in a persistent adult phenotype with improved metabolic flexibility that prevents DIO.

Categories: Diabetes

Modest Decreases in Endogenous All-trans-Retinoic Acid Produced by a Mouse Rdh10 Heterozygote Provoke Major Abnormalities in Adipogenesis and Lipid Metabolism

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activates retinol into atRA. This study examined postnatal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis. atRA or a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) pan-agonist reversed the phenotype. Eliminating one Rdh10 copy in vivo (Rdh10+/–) yielded a modest decrease (≤25%) in the atRA concentration of liver and adipose but increased adiposity in male and female mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD); increased liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in males fed an HFD; and activated bone marrow adipocyte formation in females, regardless of dietary fat. Chronic dosing with low-dose atRA corrected the metabolic defects. These data resolve physiological actions of endogenous atRA, reveal sex-specific effects of atRA in vivo, and establish the importance of Rdh10 to metabolic control by atRA. The consequences of a modest decrease in tissue atRA suggest that impaired retinol activation may contribute to diabesity, and low-dose atRA therapy may ameliorate adiposity and its sequelae of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

Categories: Diabetes

Highly Proliferative {alpha}-Cell-Related Islet Endocrine Cells in Human Pancreata

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

The proliferative response of non-β islet endocrine cells in response to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains undefined. We quantified islet endocrine cell proliferation in a large collection of nondiabetic control and T1D human pancreata across a wide range of ages. Surprisingly, islet endocrine cells with abundant proliferation were present in many adolescent and young-adult T1D pancreata. But the proliferative islet endocrine cells were also present in similar abundance within control samples. We queried the proliferating islet cells with antisera against various islet hormones. Although pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin cells did not exhibit frequent proliferation, glucagon-expressing α-cells were highly proliferative in many adolescent and young-adult samples. Notably, α-cells only comprised a fraction (~1/3) of the proliferative islet cells within those samples; most proliferative cells did not express islet hormones. The proliferative hormone-negative cells uniformly contained immunoreactivity for ARX (indicating α-cell fate) and cytoplasmic Sox9 (Sox9Cyt). These hormone-negative cells represented the majority of islet endocrine Ki67+ nuclei and were conserved from infancy through young adulthood. Our studies reveal a novel population of highly proliferative ARX+ Sox9Cyt hormone-negative cells and suggest the possibility of previously unrecognized islet development and/or lineage plasticity within adolescent and adult human pancreata.

Categories: Diabetes

Molecular Pathways for Immune Recognition of Preproinsulin Signal Peptide in Type 1 Diabetes

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

The signal peptide region of preproinsulin (PPI) contains epitopes targeted by HLA-A-restricted (HLA-A0201, A2402) cytotoxic T cells as part of the pathogenesis of β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We extended the discovery of the PPI epitope to disease-associated HLA-B*1801 and HLA-B*3906 (risk) and HLA-A*1101 and HLA-B*3801 (protective) alleles, revealing that four of six alleles present epitopes derived from the signal peptide region. During cotranslational translocation of PPI, its signal peptide is cleaved and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, implying it is processed for immune recognition outside of the canonical proteasome-directed pathway. Using in vitro translocation assays with specific inhibitors and gene knockout in PPI-expressing target cells, we show that PPI signal peptide antigen processing requires signal peptide peptidase (SPP). The intramembrane protease SPP generates cytoplasm-proximal epitopes, which are transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), ER-luminal epitopes, which are TAP independent, each presented by different HLA class I molecules and N-terminal trimmed by ER aminopeptidase 1 for optimal presentation. In vivo, TAP expression is significantly upregulated and correlated with HLA class I hyperexpression in insulin-containing islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. Thus, PPI signal peptide epitopes are processed by SPP and loaded for HLA-guided immune recognition via pathways that are enhanced during disease pathogenesis.

Categories: Diabetes

Loss of B-Cell Anergy in Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With High-Risk HLA and Non-HLA Disease Susceptibility Alleles

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Although B cells reactive with islet autoantigens are silenced by tolerance mechanisms in healthy individuals, they can become activated and contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. We previously demonstrated that high-affinity insulin-binding B cells (IBCs) occur exclusively in the anergic (BND) compartment in peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Consistent with their activation early in disease development, high-affinity IBCs are absent from the BND compartment of some first-degree relatives (FDRs) as well as all patients with autoantibody-positive prediabetes and new-onset type 1 diabetes, a time when they are found in pancreatic islets. Loss of BND IBCs is associated with a loss of the entire BND B-cell compartment consistent with provocation by an environmental trigger or predisposing genetic factors. To investigate potential mechanisms operative in subversion of B-cell tolerance, we explored associations between HLA and non-HLA type 1 diabetes–associated risk allele genotypes and loss of BNDs in FDRs. We found that high-risk HLA alleles and a subset of non-HLA risk alleles (i.e., PTPN2 [rs1893217], INS [rs689], and IKZF3 [rs2872507]), relevant to B- and T-cell development and function are associated with loss of anergy. Hence, the results suggest a role for risk-conferring alleles in perturbation of B-cell anergy during development of type 1 diabetes.

Categories: Diabetes

PDGF-BB Carried by Endothelial Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis in Diabetes

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Endothelial cell–derived extracellular vesicles (CD31EVs) constitute a new entity for therapeutic/prognostic purposes. The roles of CD31EVs as mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are investigated herein. We demonstrated that, unlike serum-derived extracellular vesicles in individuals without diabetes, those in individuals with diabetes (D CD31EVs) boosted apoptosis resistance of VSMCs cultured in hyperglycemic condition. Biochemical analysis revealed that this effect relies on changes in the balance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals: increase of bcl-2 and decrease of bak/bax. D CD31EV cargo analysis demonstrated that D CD31EVs are enriched in membrane-bound platelet-derived growth factor-BB (mbPDGF-BB). Thus, we postulated that mbPDGF-BB transfer by D CD31EVs could account for VSMC resistance to apoptosis. By depleting CD31EVs of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) or blocking the PDGF receptor β on VSMCs, we demonstrated that mbPDGF-BB contributes to D CD31EV–mediated bak/bax and bcl-2 levels. Moreover, we found that bak expression is under the control of PDGF-BB–mediated microRNA (miR)-296-5p expression. In fact, while PDGF-BB treatment recapitulated D CD31EV–mediated antiapoptotic program and VSMC resistance to apoptosis, PDGF-BB–depleted CD31EVs failed. D CD31EVs also increased VSMC migration and recruitment to neovessels by means of PDGF-BB. Finally, we found that VSMCs, from human atherosclerotic arteries of individuals with T2D, express low bak/bax and high bcl-2 and miR-296-5p levels. This study identifies the mbPDGF-BB in D CD31EVs as a relevant mediator of diabetes-associated VSMC resistance to apoptosis.

Categories: Diabetes

Dissection of Glomerular Transcriptional Profile in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: SRGAP2a Protects Podocyte Structure and Function

Tue, 03/20/2018 - 13:00

Podocytes play a pivotal role in maintaining glomerular filtration function through their interdigitated foot processes. However, the mechanisms that govern the podocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement remain unclear. Through analyzing the transcriptional profile of renal biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and control donors, we identify SLIT-ROBO GTPase-activating protein 2a (SRGAP2a) as one of the main hub genes strongly associated with proteinuria and glomerular filtration in type 2 DN. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis revealed that human and mouse SRGAP2a is primarily localized at podocytes and largely colocalized with synaptopodin. Moreover, podocyte SRGAP2a is downregulated in patients with DN and db/db mice at both the mRNA and the protein level. SRGAP2a reduction is observed in cultured podocytes treated with tumor growth factor-β or high concentrations of glucose. Functional and mechanistic studies show that SRGAP2a suppresses podocyte motility through inactivating RhoA/Cdc42 but not Rac1. The protective role of SRGAP2a in podocyte function also is confirmed in zebrafish, in which knockdown of SRGAP2a, a SRGAP2 ortholog in zebrafish, recapitulates podocyte foot process effacement. Finally, increasing podocyte SRGAP2a levels in db/db mice through administration of adenovirus-expressing SRGAP2a significantly mitigates podocyte injury and proteinuria. The results demonstrate that SRGAP2a protects podocytes by suppressing podocyte migration.

Categories: Diabetes

In This Issue of Diabetes

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50
Categories: Diabetes

Closing in on the Mechanisms of Pulsatile Insulin Secretion

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells occurs in a pulsatile fashion, with a typical period of ~5 min. The basis of this pulsatility in mouse islets has been investigated for more than four decades, and the various theories have been described as either qualitative or mathematical models. In many cases the models differ in their mechanisms for rhythmogenesis, as well as other less important details. In this Perspective, we describe two main classes of models: those in which oscillations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration drive oscillations in metabolism, and those in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations drive oscillations in Ca2+ concentration and electrical activity. We then discuss nine canonical experimental findings that provide key insights into the mechanism of islet oscillations and list the models that can account for each finding. Finally, we describe a new model that integrates features from multiple earlier models and is thus called the Integrated Oscillator Model. In this model, intracellular Ca2+ acts on the glycolytic pathway in the generation of oscillations, and it is thus a hybrid of the two main classes of models. It alone among models proposed to date can explain all nine key experimental findings, and it serves as a good starting point for future studies of pulsatile insulin secretion from human islets.

Categories: Diabetes

Ligand-Dependent Interaction of PPAR{delta} With T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 45 Enhances Insulin Signaling

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) plays a pivotal role in metabolic homeostasis through its effect on insulin signaling. Although diverse genomic actions of PPAR are postulated, the specific molecular mechanisms whereby PPAR controls insulin signaling have not been fully elucidated. We demonstrate here that short-term activation of PPAR results in the formation of a stable complex with nuclear T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase 45 (TCPTP45) isoform. This interaction of PPAR with TCPTP45 blocked translocation of TCPTP45 into the cytoplasm, thereby preventing its interaction with the insulin receptor, which inhibits insulin signaling. Interaction of PPAR with TCPTP45 blunted interleukin 6–induced insulin resistance, leading to retention of TCPTP45 in the nucleus, thereby facilitating deactivation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)–suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) signal. Finally, GW501516-activated PPAR improved insulin signaling and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet through its interaction with TCPTP45. This novel interaction of PPAR constitutes the most upstream component identified of the mechanism downregulating insulin signaling.

Categories: Diabetes

Glutamine-Elicited Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Is Governed by an Activated Glutamate Dehydrogenase

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), secreted from intestinal L cells, glucose dependently stimulates insulin secretion from β-cells. This glucose dependence prevents hypoglycemia, rendering GLP-1 analogs a useful and safe treatment modality in type 2 diabetes. Although the amino acid glutamine is a potent elicitor of GLP-1 secretion, the responsible mechanism remains unclear. We investigated how GLP-1 secretion is metabolically coupled in L cells (GLUTag) and in vivo in mice using the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 832/13 as reference. A membrane-permeable glutamate analog (dimethylglutamate [DMG]), acting downstream of electrogenic transporters, elicited similar alterations in metabolism as glutamine in both cell lines. Both DMG and glutamine alone elicited GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells and in vivo, whereas activation of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was required to stimulate insulin secretion from INS-1 832/13 cells. Pharmacological inhibition in vivo of GDH blocked secretion of GLP-1 in response to DMG. In conclusion, our results suggest that nonelectrogenic nutrient uptake and metabolism play an important role in L cell stimulus-secretion coupling. Metabolism of glutamine and related analogs by GDH in the L cell may explain why GLP-1 secretion, but not that of insulin, is activated by these secretagogues in vivo.

Categories: Diabetes

A Targeted RNAi Screen Identifies Endocytic Trafficking Factors That Control GLP-1 Receptor Signaling in Pancreatic {beta}-Cells

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) is a key target for type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. Because endocytic trafficking of agonist-bound receptors is one of the most important routes for regulation of receptor signaling, a better understanding of this process may facilitate the development of new T2D therapeutic strategies. Here, we screened 29 proteins with known functions in G protein–coupled receptor trafficking for their role in GLP-1R potentiation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. We identify five (clathrin, dynamin1, AP2, sorting nexins [SNX] SNX27, and SNX1) that increase and four (huntingtin-interacting protein 1 [HIP1], HIP14, GASP-1, and Nedd4) that decrease insulin secretion from murine insulinoma MIN6B1 cells in response to the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. The roles of HIP1 and the endosomal SNX1 and SNX27 were further characterized in mouse and human β-cell lines and human islets. While HIP1 was required for the coupling of cell surface GLP-1R activation with clathrin-dependent endocytosis, the SNXs were found to control the balance between GLP-1R plasma membrane recycling and lysosomal degradation and, in doing so, determine the overall β-cell incretin responses. We thus identify key modulators of GLP-1R trafficking and signaling that might provide novel targets to enhance insulin secretion in T2D.

Categories: Diabetes

Sucrose Nonfermenting-Related Kinase Regulates Both Adipose Inflammation and Energy Homeostasis in Mice and Humans

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase (SNRK) is a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, and its physiological role in adipose energy homeostasis and inflammation remains unknown. We previously reported that SNRK is ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but SNRK expression diminishes in adipose tissue in obesity. In this study we report novel experimental findings from both animal models and human genetics. SNRK is essential for survival; SNRK globally deficient pups die within 24 h after birth. Heterozygous mice are characterized by inflamed WAT and less BAT. Adipocyte-specific ablation of SNRK causes inflammation in WAT, ectopic lipid deposition in liver and muscle, and impaired adaptive thermogenesis in BAT. These metabolic disorders subsequently lead to decreased energy expenditure, higher body weight, and insulin resistance. We further confirm the significant association of common variants of the SNRK gene with obesity risk in humans. Through applying a phosphoproteomic approach, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1 and histone deacetylase 1/2 as potential SNRK substrates. Taking these data together, we conclude that SNRK represses WAT inflammation and is essential to maintain BAT thermogenesis, making it a novel therapeutic target for treating obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

Categories: Diabetes

The p300 and CBP Transcriptional Coactivators Are Required for {beta}-Cell and {alpha}-Cell Proliferation

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

p300 (EP300) and CBP (CREBBP) are transcriptional coactivators with histone acetyltransferase activity. Various β-cell transcription factors can recruit p300/CBP, and thus the coactivators could be important for β-cell function and health in vivo. We hypothesized that p300/CBP contribute to the development and proper function of pancreatic islets. To test this, we bred and studied mice lacking p300/CBP in their islets. Mice lacking either p300 or CBP in islets developed glucose intolerance attributable to impaired insulin secretion, together with reduced α- and β-cell area and islet insulin content. These phenotypes were exacerbated in mice with only a single copy of p300 or CBP expressed in islets. Removing p300 in pancreatic endocrine progenitors impaired proliferation of neonatal α- and β-cells. Mice lacking all four copies of p300/CBP in pancreatic endocrine progenitors failed to establish α- and β-cell mass postnatally. Transcriptomic analyses revealed significant overlaps between p300/CBP-downregulated genes and genes downregulated in Hnf1α-null islets and Nkx2.2-null islets, among others. Furthermore, p300/CBP are important for the acetylation of H3K27 at loci downregulated in Hnf1α-null islets. We conclude that p300 and CBP are limiting cofactors for islet development, and hence for postnatal glucose homeostasis, with some functional redundancy.

Categories: Diabetes

SRp55 Regulates a Splicing Network That Controls Human Pancreatic {beta}-Cell Function and Survival

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Progressive failure of insulin-producing β-cells is the central event leading to diabetes, but the signaling networks controlling β-cell fate remain poorly understood. Here we show that SRp55, a splicing factor regulated by the diabetes susceptibility gene GLIS3, has a major role in maintaining the function and survival of human β-cells. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that SRp55 regulates the splicing of genes involved in cell survival and death, insulin secretion, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. In particular, SRp55-mediated splicing changes modulate the function of the proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAX, JNK signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, explaining why SRp55 depletion triggers β-cell apoptosis. Furthermore, SRp55 depletion inhibits β-cell mitochondrial function, explaining the observed decrease in insulin release. These data unveil a novel layer of regulation of human β-cell function and survival, namely alternative splicing modulated by key splicing regulators such as SRp55, that may cross talk with candidate genes for diabetes.

Categories: Diabetes

Pancreatic Pericytes Support {beta}-Cell Function in a Tcf7l2-Dependent Manner

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

Polymorphism in TCF7L2, a component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has a strong association with β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes through a mechanism that has yet to be defined. β-Cells rely on cells in their microenvironment, including pericytes, for their proper function. Here, we show that Tcf7l2 activity in pancreatic pericytes is required for β-cell function. Transgenic mice in which Tcf7l2 was selectively inactivated in their pancreatic pericytes exhibited impaired glucose tolerance due to compromised β-cell function and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Inactivation of pericytic Tcf7l2 was associated with impaired expression of genes required for β-cell function and maturity in isolated islets. In addition, we identified Tcf7l2-dependent pericytic expression of secreted factors shown to promote β-cell function, including bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Finally, we show that exogenous BMP4 is sufficient to rescue the impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of transgenic mice, pointing to a potential mechanism through which pericytic Tcf7l2 activity affects β-cells. To conclude, we suggest that pancreatic pericytes produce secreted factors, including BMP4, in a Tcf7l2-dependent manner to support β-cell function. Our findings thus propose a potential cellular mechanism through which abnormal TCF7L2 activity predisposes individuals to diabetes and implicates abnormalities in the islet microenvironment in this disease.

Categories: Diabetes

GATA6 Controls Insulin Biosynthesis and Secretion in Adult {beta}-Cells

Tue, 02/20/2018 - 13:50

GATA4 and GATA6 play essential, but redundant, roles in pancreas formation in mice, and GATA6 mutations cause pancreatic agenesis in humans. GATA6 mutations have also recently been linked to adult-onset diabetes, with subclinical or no exocrine insufficiency, suggesting an important role for GATA6 in human β-cell physiology. To investigate the role of GATA6 in the adult endocrine pancreas, we generated mice in which Gata6 is specifically inactivated in the pancreas. These mice develop glucose intolerance. Islets deficient in GATA6 activity display decreased insulin content and impaired insulin secretion. Gata6-deficient β-cells exhibit ultrastructural abnormalities, including increased immature insulin granules, swollen mitochondria, and disorganized endoplasmic reticulum. We also demonstrate that Pdx1 expression in adult β-cells depends on GATA sites in transgenic reporter mice and that loss of GATA6 greatly affects β-cell–specific gene expression. These findings demonstrate the essential role of GATA6 in β-cell function.

Categories: Diabetes

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